The Post-Cold War Order: Diagnoses and Prognoses chapter 3, entitled Liberal Democracy, Constitutionalism, and the New World Order by authors Richard Leaver and James L. Richardson, discusses how the American system of democracy will affect a new world order. Liberalism, and liberal states are talked about in a negative way, as if it would not work in the New World Order. Constitutionalism, however, is said to be a core strength of an emerging New World Order. The chapter states that because liberal democracy is a strictly western ideal that many countries will not be in favor of it in the Post-Soviet era.
In the Novel The Consequences of Modernity Anthony Giddens discusses the fact that modernity is a mainly western ideal. He talks about that modernity was started by the western culture and modernity occurs when western institutions become prevalent in foreign cultures. “This is more than a diffusion of Western institutions across the world, in which other cultures are crushed. Globalisation, which is a process of uneven development that fragments as it coordinates, introduces new forms of world interdependence, in which, once again there are no “others”” (Giddens 175). Western technologies and cultures spread like wildfire in countries that decide to allow western influences inside of their borders. When this occurs a country becomes modern. Take for example China. Its rate of urban development and economic growth has multiplied over 15x what it was in the late 1980’s, when western influences started to industrialize themselves there. The western idea of democracy, and constitutionalism is starting to find its way into the countries of the former Soviet Union, and they are starting to become more modernized. They are especially adopting the idea of constitutionalism according to authors Richard Leaver and James L. Richardson. “Although it is improbable that the majority of states will embrace Western liberal democracy in the post-Col War world, it may nevertheless be possible (and all the more necessary) to first secure peace through greater respect for international constitutionalism. Second, no new world order will appear if the rule of law is seen as nothing more than an instrument of the strong. Here, it is important to reiterate the point that the critics of American foreign policy often have good reason to argue that hegemonic states only behave constitutionally when it suits their particular interests” (Leaver and Richardson 37). Apparently the western idea of constitutionalism is necessary for a country to thrive in this new era of history. Western ideas are spring boarding countries that aren’t as developed as the US into a state of modernity, and economic growth. Giddens is correct in the fact that he says that modernity is a Western ideal, but the West as it seems, influences every part of the world in different complex ways, whether it be politically or economically.